After preliminary surveys, further fieldwork surveys, often called ‘field evaluation’ may be needed. The most frequently used surveys are:
Geophysical surveys: provide a rapid and cost effective method of seeing whether archaeological remains are present over large areas.
Fieldwalking surveys: involve the systematic examination of ploughed fields searching for ancient finds.
Geo-archaeological surveys: may involve auguring, coring and the excavation of deep test pits by machine to look for deeply buried archaeological remains.
Trial trenching: involves opening trenches covering a sample of the surface area of the site using a mechanical excavator. Hand excavation is sufficient to find out what type of remains are present, for example burials, and their date.