Neolithic

Two causewayed enclosures were constructed at either end of a spur on the ridge of this, the second highest point on the Isle of Sheppey.  While K1 faced south towards the Swale, K2 looked north across the Thames estuary and the Essex coast beyond. The two were in use at the same time, but radiocarbon dates suggest that K2 was built first (3710-3635 cal BC) and K1 second (3660-3580 cal BC).

The setting of the causwayed enclosure, K1

Approximately one quarter of K1 was excavated. The profile of the ditches varied considerably, with some V shaped and others flat-bottomed, while most had clearly been re-cut and cleaned out while in use. A considerable amount of pottery and flint was found in the inner ditches, but little in the outer circuit.

Segments of three of the ditches of K2 were excavated, and these too showed evidence of recutting and cleaning. Pottery and flint were found, including a number of ‘structured’ or ‘placed’ deposits. One of these consisted of a fragment of a ground stone axe, placed over a few pieces of animal bone. The axe is particularly interesting because the nearest source of the Palaeozoic Sandstone it is made from is either the Ardennes or Scandinavia.

Part of the Neolithic ground stone axe

Neolithic pottery fragments in-situ

There are noticeable differences in both the pottery and flint from the two causewayed enclosures, leading archaeologists to believe that the two were used in different ways, with larger scale ceremonies taking place in K1 and smaller, perhaps private activities in K2.

Neolithic flint arrowhead from K2

Plan of enclosures K1 and K2